Jak bezpieczne jest twoje nurkowanie?

Co dla ciebie oznacza termin bezpieczny? Słownik definiuje to słowo jako „chroniony przed lub nienarażony na niebezpieczeństwo lub ryzyko; prawdopodobnie nie zostanie skrzywdzony ani zagubiony”. W kontekście nurkowania często myślimy o zagrożeniach fizycznych. Mogą one obejmować chorobę dekompresyjną, obrażenia wywołane przez zwierzęta, oddzielenie od zespołu/łodzi, zaplątanie się, zgubienie w systemie jaskiń lub brak gazu. Są to możliwe negatywne sytuacje, którymi powinniśmy się martwić. Wiele z nich zostało opisanych w opracowaniu naukowym DAN z 2008 r. (Typowe przyczyny śmiertelnych wypadków nurkowych na obiegach otwartych), w którym badano czynniki wyzwalające zdarzenia i urazy, powodujące kalectwo oraz śmierć podczas nurkowania. Dlatego należy je zdecydowanie uwzględnić w naszym zarządzaniu ryzykiem i planowaniu nurkowania.

Ale co z inną formą bezpieczeństwa? Formą, którą Google w ramach projektu Arystoteles zidentyfikował jako kluczową...

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Human Factors / Factores Humanos - A view from Argentina

Introducción

¿Qué son? Primero vamos a definirlo, los Factores Humanos son la influencia de las capacidades y limitaciones humanas.

También se puede definir cómo un fenómeno multidimensional sujeto a la influencia de una identidad de variables internas y externas.

La ergonomía estudia la eficiencia de un sistema como resultado de la interacción entre sus elementos:

  • Las personas
  • El equipo que usan
  • Los procedimientos y reglas que siguen
  • Las condiciones ambientales

El objetivo es optimizar estas relaciones para mejorar la seguridad, la eficiencia y el bienestar.

¿Por qué en la aviación, medicina y buceo?

Entre los años 70´y 80´ en la aviación se reconoció que la naturaleza compleja de los factores de la misma iban más allá del error del piloto únicamente.

Cuando se descubre que el error humano causa mas accidentes aéreos que el mal funcionamiento...

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Quanto sono sicure le tue immersioni?

Che cosa significa “sicura” per te? Il dizionario la definisce come “protetta da, o non esposta a pericoli o rischi; improbabile che venga danneggiata o persa” nell’ambito delle immersioni, noi spesso pensiamo ad un rischio fisico. Il che può includere problemi decompressivi, ferite causate da organismi animali, essere separati dalla barca o dal gruppo, rimanere impigliati, perdersi in un sistema di grotte od esaurire i gas. Sono tutti esiti profondamente negativi e dei quali dovremmo preoccuparci. Alcuni di questi sono apparsi nell’articolo scientifico pubblicato dal DAN nel 2008 (“Common causes of open-circuit recreational diving fatalities”), nel quale vengono esaminati gli inneschi, gli eventi ed infortuni invalidanti e le cause di decesso durante le immersioni. Quindi dovrebbero assolutamente essere presi in considerazione per lo sviluppo dei nostri piani di gestione del rischio e delle immersioni.

E le altre forme di...

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Counter-errorism in Diving: Applying Human Factors Training to Recreational Diving

This article was originally published in the Emirates Diving Association magazine on 1 Mar 2020.

There is a growing focus on Human Factors and non-technical skills in the global diving industry, much of which is being driven by Gareth Lock, the UK-based founder of the system described on www.thehumandiver. com. His book ‘Under Pressure’ has helped thousands of people worldwide to take a fresh look at the way they think about diving.

You may be wondering what human factors and non-technical skills are, as it’s not something we talk much about locally.

To demystify these terms, let’s first talk about what they are not. These are not diving qualifications – they are not going to take you deeper or teach you about new diving equipment or diving skills (hence the term ‘non- technical skills’) and they are definitely not ‘just another cert card’ to add to your collection.

Non-technical skills are all about improving decision...

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¿Eres un buceador suficientemente bueno?

¿Qué significa ser "suficientemente bueno"? Si lo piensas, "Bueno" es un término relativo porque, por definición, debe haber alguna o muchas otras cosas que no son buenas y las estás juzgando de acuerdo a tu percepción de “Bueno”.

El término 'Doing It Right' o DIR atrajo muchas críticas en los años 90 y principios de los 2000 debido a la falacia lógica que usamos a menudo para ver el mundo con opciones binarias. Si no lo estás haciendo "bien", entonces debes de estar "haciéndolo mal".

Sin embargo, una vez que evolucionamos y salimos de una visión tan infantil, nos damos cuenta de que el mundo es mucho más complejo que eso y que tales atribuciones binarias no son válidas ni son útiles cuando se trata de aprender o mejorar las relaciones. Siempre existe un compromiso, y siempre y cuando el compromiso esté informado y se entiendan las opciones, ¿por...

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When the holes line up...

Many of my readers will have heard about me talk about Professor James Reason's Swiss Cheese Model and how it can be used to show how incident develop because of holes in the barriers and defences which are put in place to maximise safety.

Professor Reason's research showed that at different levels within a system, there are different barriers or defences present. e.g. organisational, supervisor and individual. However, these defences can have holes in them because the organisations, supervisors and operators are all fallible and therefore the defences cannot be perfect.

  • At the Organisational level, these failures might be poor organisational culture, inadequate diver and instructor training programmes, flawed equipment certification systems e.g. CE or ISO, or misunderstood/misused reward or punishment systems e.g. QC/QA or certificates for the number of certifications completed.
  • At the Supervisor level, these gaps might be inadequate supervision dealing with inexperienced...
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The Dirty Dozen - Part 1

Introduction

Ever looked back at an incident or accident to find the reason it happened and realised that you were stressed, tired or distracted and that is what caused the event? These are three of the ‘Dirty Dozen’ which human factors experts have identified as key contributory factors or precursors to incidents and accidents.

The term ‘The Dirty Dozen’ refers to twelve of the most common human error pre-conditions or precursors which lead to accidents and incidents. These twelve have been shown to influence people to make mistakes, errors or violations. The concept was developed by Gordon Dupont in 1993 and is now a key element to Human Factors in Maintenance training.

Note that these twelve are not the only factors which lead to mistakes, errors and violations, but they certainly give you a focal point to identify conditions where errors and violations are more likely to occur. Different domains or even subsets within domains like pilots, ramp crews, air...

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Only 20% of surgeons would like to use a checklist in their operations…

…but 94% would like one used in an operation on themselves…!
 
Atul Gawande gave four presentations before Christmas as the 2014 Reith Lectures’ presenter (BBC iPlayer downloads and transcripts can be downloaded from here).
 
During these presentations, he highlighted ways in which the healthcare and medical industries could develop their safety further, but he also recognised that we are all human, fallible and therefore there was a limit to what could be achieved and, consequently we needed to recognise this when judging adverse outcomes.  The same situation needs to be recognised within sports diving where we are undertaking an activity (of our choice) which has an inherent risk of fatality as we are in a hostile, non-life sustaining environment if something serious goes wrong.
 
His second presentation specifically looked at how better systems could improve safety, and radically reduce the mistakes and errors made, and improve...
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'Choices': Guaranteed small loss or a probable larger loss, injury or fatality?

You have been blown-out for 4 weekends in a row and you now have an opportunity to dive this weekend as the weather is fabulous and the visibility has been reported as 10m+. However, you aren’t due to dive for another four weeks for a variety of reasons. Just as you getting your gear ready to put on, you notice that you have a malfunction with your gear, something manageable but will cause you additional workload and reduce your margin of safety on the dive. This is a failure you wouldn’t normally accept because you get to dive lots. If you don’t dive, your buddy will have to sit out too as there isn’t anybody else to dive with them at such short notice. What do you do?

At this point, you are managing uncertainty not a risk because the numbers are not calculable. You decide to dive and nothing adverse happens and you have an awesome dive.

Are you reflective of your management of uncertainty? Did you think it was ‘good’?

But what if two or three...

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Dive safety leads to nothingness...and nothingness is unemotive!

How safe are you when you dive and how do you measure safety? Think about the following story and how safe the situation was...

Six divers had decided to undertake a 30m dive from a RHIB. John and Dave were diving as a team with their local university dive club and had over 2000 dives between them. Graham was relatively newly trained as a marshal and had not worked with Brian before. On the dive boat, there were two new divers to the club, Gail and Mark. Both Gail and Mark had successfully completed a check-out dive & dry suit familiarisation course with another instructor in the club, and they were already certified for 40m diving. Graham was keen to do a drift dive in 32m of water. Brian, the cox, was somewhat worried about the conditions as there seemed to be waves forming. However, as long as all divers were certified to 30m diving and effective at getting into the water and back onto the RHIB, he was happy that the risk was acceptable. To allow the Cox and Marshall to...

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